Top Takeaways:

  • Those who do the work do the learning, and students are more motivated to do the work when they have some say in the learning process. Courses should be structured so students have the freedom to make important choices about their learning and the opportunity for instructor guidance when they need it.
  • Students will feel more motivated to learn if they are given some autonomy about things such as where, when, how, and with whom they learn. Consider how students might demonstrate their learning in multiple ways, create their own tests and quizzes, engage in peer teaching, and complete assignments with an authentic audience that will live on beyond the class.
  • Flipped learning (or the flipped classroom) is one way to center your teaching practice around student engagement where content is introduced outside the classroom and students go deeper in class, where they can interact, ask questions, experiment, and create.

Timeline:

Consider these ideas during your planning process before your course begins. You may be able to try out some of these techniques on the fly, but many of them require more advanced planning.

Fostering Student Choice and Decision Making

Those who do the work do the learning. If this maxim is true, then how can we structure our classrooms so that students have the power to make important choices about their learning without creating unnecessary chaos? How can they do more of the work while still relying on us for guidance?

When students are given the opportunity to make decisions about their learning process, they are more likely to form deep connections and practice higher level thinking skills. According to Deci and Ryan, students need “autonomy, competence, and relatedness…in social contexts” in order for them to learn and achieve self-determination. Students must actively construct their learning within intentional, social contexts (qtd. in Stefanou, et al 98). Students who feel like they have some freedom over their learning are more likely to set “realistic goals, [determine] appropriate actions that accomplish goals, and [assess] progress toward the goals” whereas students who feel powerless to make their own decisions “lack volitional strategies and behaviors” (qtd. in Stefanou, et al 98).

It’s important to note that choice alone does not guarantee student motivation. Students need to have the freedom to make choices that relate to their own lives and clearly connect to their immediate goals. In their article, The Effectiveness and Relative Importance of Choice in the Classroom, motivation theorists Patall et al. explain:

…choice may only be effective when it successfully satisfies fundamental needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. As such, having choice or the act of selecting alone is not enough to support motivation. Rather, choices need to be relevant to students’ interests and goals, provide a moderate number of options of an intermediate level of complexity, and be congruent with other family and cultural values in order to effectively support motivation (898).

Because the types of choices students are presented with significantly affect their level of motivation, consider how students might contribute to the menu of choices provided in your class. Perhaps you provide 2-3 choices with an option for students to create their own proof of learning with your approval, for example.

How might students gain more autonomy in your class?

When examining the structure of your course, how might you incorporate one or more of the following approaches in order to promote student autonomy and greater motivation? Your answer will likely be affected by your goals for the class and how you want students to transfer knowledge from your course into other contexts. Don’t feel like you need to redesign your whole course or use all of these ideas. Try out one or two to see what feels best and then make adjustments accordingly.

  • Assignment and Assessment Choices: Students can demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways including through writing essays or reports, creating videos or podcasts, curating a portfolio, taking tests and quizzes, building models, giving presentations, etc. Provide a menu of choices for students to use when deciding how they’d like to demonstrate their learning.
  • Student-created Tests, Rubrics, and Reflection questions: Students learn a lot from considering the criteria that should be used to evaluate their work. Creating their own assessment criteria helps students think critically about the content they’re learning and how they should be able to illustrate that learning. Use student-created test questions, rubrics, or reflection questions when making your assessments.
  • Peer Teaching: Studies have shown that students retain less than 10% of what they hear during a lecture. By contrast, students retain 75% of what they learn by doing and 90% of the information they are able to teach to others (Duderstadt 64-65).
    • Peer-to-Peer Teaching: when an expert student teaches a novice student. Peer tutors, teaching assistants, and mixed-skill cooperative learning groups are all examples of peer-to-peer teaching.
    • Peer Instruction: a “research-based teaching method that leverages the power of social interaction to drive learning” (Schell). Peer Instruction works best when students have been exposed to the content before class. Class time is spent clarifying the concepts through a seven-step process:
      1. Deliver a mini-lecture about an important concept.
      2. Pose a question.
      3. Give students time to think individually.
      4. Collect responses in a way that keeps them private.
      5. Have students turn to a neighbor and try to convince them of their answer.
      6. Ask students to commit to a final answer, and collect those responses.
      7. Reveal the responses, the correct answer (if one exists), and facilitate a classwide discussion about the answer and the reasoning behind it.
    • Jigsaw Teaching: a cooperative learning technique where each student studies one segment of the course content and teaches that segment to the other members of their peer group. See The Jigsaw Classroom for all ten steps of the process.
  • Open Pedagogy: Open Pedagogy is the practice of teachers using Open Educational Resources (OER) and students completing openly shareable, non-disposable assignments. Non-disposable assignments are those that live on beyond the course and can be used by others in the future. They have an authentic audience and purpose beyond meeting the requirements of the course.

Implementing Flipped Learning

What is a flipped classroom? Flipped Learning moves content delivery such as lectures, readings, and other forms of information to students’ individual learning spaces so that classroom time is spent engaging with the material in more active, applied ways. Students come to class with at least an introduction to the concepts that will be used in creative ways with their peers and instructor there to support learning. This interactive class time may take the form of group work, experimentation, debate, project work, scenario analysis, in-class presentations, service-learning, problem solving, etc.

According to the Flipped Learning Network, The Four Pillars of FLIP are as follows:

  • Flexible Environment: Group work, individual study, and project-based learning are all supported in a flexible learning environment.
  • Learning Culture: Learner-centered, the flipped classroom includes students in the active construction of knowledge through active, applied practice using new skills and concepts.
  • Intentional Content: Content is carefully selected and curated in text, video, and other formats “to maximize classroom time in order to adopt methods of student-centered, active learning strategies.”
  • Professional Educator: In a flipped classroom, the instructor is a reflective practitioner, examining their own practices with the aim to improve them. The instructor observes students at work in order to provide feedback and guide students toward greater understanding of the content.

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